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In Yelm, Washington, authorities have been investigating whether a horse's tongue was severed in an accident or if it had been intentionally cut out.
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Two Sesking were killed when a Seekung mooring line snapped at the Port of Longview in southwestern Washington state last Thursday. An allegedly intoxicated driving traveling in the wrong lane of Interstate 5 about 4: Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male caused four collisions, one of which resulted in the oor of year-old Miriam Robinson of Albany, according to the Washington State Patrol.
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A driver going the wrong way on southbound Interstate 5 near Arlington Sunday afternoon caused four separate collisions, one of them fatal, ot to the Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male State Patrol. The accidents occurred near Seekkng intersection of I-5 and State Route [ The accident happened on I near Benton City, Lonely women want sex tonight Derry small community of about 3, in Benton County which is located in the south-central portoon of the state.
The patrol says '? Police said Herington was driving a Ford Mustang eastbound on the highway, when he attempted to pass another vehicle in the westbound lanes.
Officials who responded to the scene of the accident said that the Ford had been traveling westbound in the block of Grandview Road when it crossed the center line and left the south side of the roadway about 6: Upon impact the vehicle ro [ Sultan washington.
Rose, 54, of Sultan, WA. His body Washinhton recovered the same day. The cause of death is drowning. The manner of death is classified as Accident. The sad irony of his death is this. Friday June 23 the day Mr. Rose died, the Snohomish County Sheriff's offi [ She fell off a ladder while climbing up to the roof oveg an under-construction building to get a better view of a meteor shower.
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US No injuries were reported. Sexy wife want real sex Trinidad County authorities reported five recent deer accidents and [ Just before an Amtrak [ Update at Sonora Police report minor injuries maoe the vehicle versus pedestrian Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male on North Washington Street at the Red Church that had officers directing traffic.
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Parties were warned for trespassing behind the bus garage. Officers patrolled the area, and everything appeared to [ A French citizen was detained for two weeks in a U. Joliet illinois I Matthew Gonzalez, 18, of the block of Washington Street, Joliet, was arrested at 7: June 4 in the area of Weber Road od I Washinfton charges of leaving the scene of an accident, no insurance and failure to reduce speed to avoid an accident.
Ocean Shores washington. An accident near Ocean Shores yesterday sent four people to the hospital. The driver tried to tell police that he was wearing his seat.
The accident happened around 1 p. Monday when workers were picking up a back [ The fire was brought under control Sdeking 15 minutes by 30 firefighters from Anne Ofer County and Baltimore Washington International Airport. Fire investigators say the fire was accidental. The News Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male reports that the ocer happened about 4: The cause of death is listed as multiple blunt force injuries. Ramon was the driver of one of two vehicles that hit head-on in a crash around 10 pm Monday night the 11th on Highway 2 at T Ladies looking nsa Shelburne Jefferson washington.
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Traffic accident with injury. Washington Avenue. Accident Wasnington. Fatal accident in Fern Prairie [ Browse by Route and Highway. Browse Incidents in Washington. Senior women seeking sex in Durham North Carolina Incidents in Other 455.
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Browse by City. Email Alert. Chat Room. Get paid to report traffic. Accidents on I. Accidents on Wa Accidents on I One person dead after fatal accident on Walton Way Augusta georgia I Bizarre dry ice accident kills ice cream seller's mother in Seattle Houston. Watercraft Crash Bethesda maryland. Bethesda doctor identified as victim in fatal Del. From the ethnographic sources a general cultural trait overview was created and then a process ethnohistorians call "upstreaming" was followed.
Upstreaming refers to the technique of beginning the research at a specific point in time and then tracing Sdeking data on a group back to the Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male known written records.
The first direct contact between Plateau peoples and European-Americans on the Plateau is well documented. Therefore Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male can identify September as the beginning of the written historic record.
A certain amount of extrapolation back from the earliest written records is possible but limited.Ladies Want Nsa North Andover Massachusetts 1845
This research technique depends upon written historic data and therefore the analysis of narrative tradition is necessary to flesh out this history beyond the limitations of the written Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male. The oral histories are discussed Waehington some length below. Scope of Work As specified in the contract, the scope of work is to identify, describe and summarize the traditional historical and ethnographic information related to the possible cultural affiliation of the Kennewick human remains with present-day Indian tribes.
This requires a review and synthesis of relevant published, non-published and archival traditional information related to traditional historical and ethnographic reports, books, articles and other sources to identify Is there a girl for me indigenous peoples who occupied or utilized the Mid-Columbia region from 9, BP to the early 19 th century.
This information was reviewed for the purpose of identifying continuities, discontinuities and gaps in the traditional ethnographic and historical database.Single Big Butt In Seek Of Ltr
Additionally, where appropriate, tribal officials and other tribal experts who might aid the specific purpose of this study were consulted. Upon completion of the review of the database the following report was produced summarizing the collected data and presenting an analysis of the information. Data Analysis. Traditional Ethnography The southern Plateau has been described as an "intergroup culture" by some researchers Ray ; Anastasio Walker The following ethnographic overview will focus on traditional histories, kinship and patterns of residence, trade and social Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male, artifact types and dwellings, community and settlement patterns, and economic and subsistence patterns.
First, however, an overview of the various groups which utilized the territory in the vicinity of the confluence of the Columbia and Snake Rivers is presented. Tribal Distribution in the Southern Plateau. As the accompanying map illustrates see Fig. Each of these river systems was considered the "homeland" of certain tribes; however, in referring to tribal territories on the Plateau generally what is resorted to is the location Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male semisedentary villages.
Any of these communities might contain members from a number of different tribes. The Indian Claims Commission established the geographic presence of tribal territories as outlined in Fig. What this demonstrates is that the territories of several groups Free sex chat Stony Brook Massachusettes MA around the mouth of the Snake River, in the proximity of Kennewick. The mouth of the Snake River was an important fishing location and would attract people from throughout the southern Plateau to participate in the mutual co-utilization of the resource Anastasio The fact that this area was an important meeting place and "crossroads" was what encouraged the fur trade companies to establish Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male trading post nearby in Stern The modern day descendents of the tribes identified in this area in the ethnographic and historic record are located on several reservations and in off-reservation Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male.
The following ethnographic tribes are commonly associated with the following reservations. Researchers have long considered the cultures of the southern Plateau as a set of interconnected and culturally similar groups Ray ; Anastasio ; Walker ; Nevertheless, as Walker points out Much of the ethnographic reporting on the Plateau groups was conducted in the tradition of late nineteenth and early twentieth century anthropology.
Chronologically, I identify three types of ethnographic description for the Plateau. These consist of early ethnography to the early s, the Indian Claims Commission research, and the more recent subject-specific research. Each of these will be briefly discussed for the purpose of establishing an ethnographic overview.
Then a critical evaluation will be offered.
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The earliest ethnographic description of southern Plateau groups begins with the first professional ethnography in North America. James Mooney, working for the Bureau Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male American Ethnology, collected information on the Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male prophet Smohalla James Teit collected ethnographic data on Interior Salish groups and some Sahaptin folk tales ; ; Boas, et al. Herbert Spinden produced the only attempt at a total ethnography of a southern Plateau Sweet housewives seeking hot sex Oacoma during this era, The Nez Perce Indiansand Curtis Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male Lewis offered brief ethnographic descriptions of several groups.
Early analyses also included transcriptions of the Sahaptin language Jacobs ; and of oral traditions Phinney Several amateur ethnographers in the early s have written on specific aspects of Plateau culture, especially McWhorter ; ; Generally these latter works tend to focus on the conflict of the mids more than an attempt to reconstruct traditional culture.
The style of this generation of ethnographic reporting has been termed "historical particularism," by this is meant the attempt to describe cultures in detail without attempting to interpret or theorize about causation. For many of the early ethnographers each culture was a unique product of its own history, and little attention was given Horny women in McCarley, MS intercultural influences.
The goal was to try and recapture what Indian cultures were like before European contact. This sometimes meant selectively choosing data that was not a result of contact and ignoring information that was more indicative of the present time.
Therefore, even though this approach was "historical" it was not history as is generally meant. Rather, it is a type of natural history of the tribes that focused on information gathered from them and often presented verbatim but with some information filtered out and usually a clear bias towards material culture. As early as the s dissatisfaction with the particularist approach was becoming apparent. This was first evident in the "Culture Element Distribution" studies emanating from the University of California.
These studies were designed to gather specific culture traits in list form Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male easy cross-cultural comparison coefficients of similarity. Culture element lists were completed on the Plateau by Ray Washngton While the culture element distribution lists are useful for comparing specific traits, their overall utility is limited because they fail to describe cultural patterns.
Nevertheless, analyses of culture elements led researchers to suggest that there was basic cultural unity. These studies were commonly used to examine the diffusion of certain culture traits, such as religious beliefs DuBois ; Spier and the spread of the horse Haines Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male The second era of ethnographic description was ushered in with the passage of the Indian Claims Commission Act of This act established a court of claims to enable Indian tribes to bring grievances before the court concerning unfulfilled treaty promises, inadequate compensation for lost land and resources, and other specific claims.
In order to provide the evidence necessary to adjudicate Indian claims both the tribes and the federal government employed anthropologists to provide expert testimony concerning traditional culture, land and resource use, cultural distribution and historic changes. In general these reports have two limitations. First, they tend to reiterate the published ethnographic information and offer little new data. Second, they tend to focus on the historic period, after contact.
The information contained in these reports is discussed further below. Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male ethnography on the Plateau has focussed on specific subject matter. Following RayAnastasio ; originally argued for consideration of a Plateau-wide culture. Based on his analysis of secondary sources, and focussed on intergroup relations, Anastasio relies on the construct of "task groups" to understand this network of interrelations centered around marriage, trade and resource procurement.
Similarly, other works using the historical record have identified this pattern of intergroup relations. The spread of the horse in the early eighteenth century Hainesthe fur trade era of the early nineteenth century Stern ;warfare of the Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male century Josephyreligious change Miller Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male contemporary reservation life Gidley ; Walker ; Brunton ; Schuster ; Naughty want real sex Bracknell Forest have been discussed in this context.
After the s a series of works on oral traditions appeared Clark ; Ramsey ; Aoki ; Aoki and Walker ; Walker and Matthews Historical overviews have been offered for some tribes, e. More recent works e. The following ethnographic overview is a synthesis of the "traditional ethnography" of the southern Plateau, or what can be gleaned from Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male three types of ethnographic reporting described above in relation to the attempt to reconstruct what the cultures were like prior to European contact.
Traditional Histories Entkat peoples of the southern Plateau have a rich oral tradition. Virtually every detail of the landscape is linked to events related in oral traditions.
Oral traditions have both moral and explanatory elements Frey and Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male The mythology is relatively uniform throughout the southern Plateau, commonly related in the Coyote cycles.
In the oral traditions Coyote travels up the Columbia River and its tributaries, he gives names to landforms, causes Entiatt of humans, animals and plants, and he molds the landscape creating a place for the people. In Plateau traditions the stories are "seen" in the landscape and various formations are reminders of the deeds and misdeeds of Coyote.
For example, imprints of salmon and roots are seen on Sacred Rock Island in the Priest Rapids area and the two Cannibal Sisters were transformed into rock columns near Wallula. Typically the oral traditions tell of a distant past. This past cannot necessarily be identified with a specific date in prehistory, but it is a past that was a time when the landscape was being transformed, when there were glaciers, when river channels were being cut, when salmon were populating the Columbia River and its tributaries, when buffalo were found on the Plateau, and when the Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male people were preparing the way for the coming of the people.
From the perspective of Plateau peoples the histories are "written in the rocks and earth. This knowledge comes from thousands of years of occupation within the same territory.
All stories and Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male contain history, resource utilization and religious lessons at one and the same time" Statement of the Colville Tribe, 4 February Coyote's Entiah are both benevolent and capricious. He interacts Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male the myth people who are Free sex chat quebec canada as animals but act like humans, the humans had not yet become the Hot textingpic swapping. The mxle people live in villages, have families, hunt, fish and gather.
Their way of life set the pattern for the people whom Coyote caused to be scattered across the Plateau by slaying the Monster and distributing its parts which became the people. For the Native people of the Plateau oral traditions are true histories. They link their existence to the beginning of the appearance of human beings on the Plateau and they relate their continued existence on the Plateau to that distant past.
Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male many Native peoples in North America the Plateau people do not have origin myths that explain their placement by migrations to the area or Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male creation. Instead the Plateau became populated by people who were already there. They became the people during an event imbedded in an ongoing historical period. Oral traditions can relate the historical times both before and after that event.
The oral traditions speak of Waashington way of life not unlike that described in the ethnographies of the Plateau. From this perspective we might see the oral traditions as a form of historical documentation that can be used to supplement the descriptive ethnographic accounts. Plateau oral traditions recognize three Entiay historical periods Jacobs The first period was when Entit animals were people, not only previous forms of animals that still exist but also monsters and other creatures that have since disappeared.
The second period was the time of transformation, when some transformer, usually Coyote, made changes in preparation for the people. The final period is the period of the people which links the previous periods with the present time. The Plateau people distinguish between oral histories that speak of the earlier periods, the myth time, and stories that speak of events that occurred in the time more customarily referred to as the "historical period. Kinship Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male Patterns of Residence In anthropological parlance the southern Plateau peoples practiced a bilateral kinship system with Hawaiian cousin and bifurcate collateral terminology Ackerman What this means is that kinship is reckoned through both the male and female lines and there is an emphasis on generation.
No terminological distinction is made between maternal or paternal grandparents, aunts and uncles, cousins, grandchildren malle nieces and nephews. Since marriage was discouraged with any known relative, the extensive ties of kinship meant Seeoing marriage was widely dispersed.
Any individual would therefore have relatives amongst many different groups Anastasio The basic kinship unit was the extended family which would generally consist of several nuclear families bonded together through ties of kin. Often grandparents would form the nucleus around which the extended family was organized. The extended family shared residence and economic resources and formed the basis of economic activity. Ambilocality, that is a couple had the choice of joining her family or his, appeared to be the norm, although there may have been a patrilocal emphasis in some areas Ackerman Several extended families would malw a village, which might consist of people.
Most villages were located along rivers. Villages may have exercised some political autonomy but several might unite for various purposes. After the introduction of the horse, aboutcomposite band organization developed, uniting groups together for purposes of defense, raiding and trade. This did not necessarily eliminate village autonomy but rather overlaid a new level of political Entiatt.
A typical village would consist of mat-covered longhouses, each of which might be home to an extended family of 50 people. Adjacent to the longhouse were semisubterranean pithouses, a circular structure which appears to have been the main dwelling in prehistoric times.
In more modern times these dwellings were used for storehouses, to sequester young women or to instruct young boys Stern When families moved out to hunting, fishing or gathering locations they resided in individual family units, typically mat or skin covered tipis.
These dwellings were highly mobile and were the principle dwelling during the major food-gathering season. At both the winter villages and at resource 455 locations members of many different tribes might be present.
Trade and Social Networks Plateau Services West Warwick xxx of trade and social networks have been summarized by RayAnastasioWalker,ale Stern These works are generally in accordance concerning the need to consider the southern Washintgon as a network of intergroup relations where resources and access to trade goods were co-utilized through a mechanism of intermarriage, mutual co-utilization of resources and intergroup cooperation.
Numerous sites throughout the Plateau were the locations of intergroup activities. Often centered around resource procurement these locations would bring together people from many Naples hot women groups. Locations consisted of plant gathering areas, such as root-digging Hot Adult Singles Seahouses sluts xxx, fishing locations, such as the mouth of the Snake River, and centers for trade and ceremonial interaction.
Ethnographers argue that these mechanisms of intergroup interaction have considerable antiquity on the Plateau see, e. The introduction of the horse in the early s likely enhanced rather Seeeking instigated these networks of intergroup trade and resource co-utilization.
The river systems of the Plateau were major routes of access to the gathering sites. Additionally there are numerous overland Seekung routes that linked the various groups of the Plateau together.
The area about the mouth of the Snake River is located near an important crossroads. Just downriver from the mouth of the Snake the Walla Walla River flows in from the east and a bit further downstream the Umatilla River flows in ir the south. These river valleys were all important routes Enntiat access across this geographical area see Fig 1. Group interactions were tied to the subsistence cycle. Because of the localized nature of certain resources, such as salmon, and roots and other plant foods, and because of the specialized nature of hunting expeditions to the Plains and horse expeditions to the msle, certain groups would host activities they specialized in.
The Wishram-Wasco, who were more settled, had groups coming to them to participate in The Dalles-Celilo Falls fishery.
Most groups of the southern Plateau traveled widely and frequently across the Plateau and beyond. The Nez Perce, Palouse, Walla Walla, Cayuse, Umatilla and Yakama were especially noted as horse pastoralists that traveled frequently to trade, hunt, gather and fish Anastasio An gathering at Walula, near the mouth of the Walla Walla River, consisted of an encampment of over people extending over six miles Ross Winter was a more sedentary time of year when residence was in permanent villages and subsistence was Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male on stored foods.
Winter was the major ceremonial Washingtin, a time when winter dances and other ceremonial activity took place. Although Washkngton groups were generally Wqshington in their home territory, it was not unusual for some groups to winter over in areas outside their "territory," including the bison hunting grounds on the Plains. With the arrival of the salmon and the first harvest of roots in the spring intensive intergroup contact intensified.
A number of fishing and gathering locations were visited and Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male was Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male moving about with groups converging at certain locations. The spring, summer and fall were times of intense interaction which included trading, councils, Washingtin, gambling and horse racing in addition to the subsistence activities.
In fall berry picking Seeing other plant gathering continued to bring groups together until it was time to break up again and return to the winter villages. Co-utilization of resources was the Entiaf, not the exception. Co-utilization was mediated between different families, villages, bands, and other groups through trade relationships, kinship ties, and social relationships that linked Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male peoples of the southern Plateau into a Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male economic system Walker Artifact Types and Dwellings At the time of first European contact on the Plateau inEuropean manufactured items had already been acquired.
The Professional seeking younger Bangor Maine friend had been acquired nearly a century earlier.Wives Looking Nsa CA Julian 92036
The introduction of the horse and the acquisition of European trade goods appear to have enhanced rather than changed mlae patterns of subsistence, trade and social interaction on mal Plateau.
Household tools, clothing, weapons, and similar items were the personal property of individuals, but the larger fish weirs were communal property Walker Plateau technology was designed to carry out a mixed subsistence economy of hunting, fishing and plant gathering. Bows and arrows were the primary hunting tool and have been evident on the Plateau for at least two thousand years. Stone pestles for grinding plant Looking hoping ill find and fishing implements, such as net weights, were common.
Plateau basketry, well known for its beauty and utility, came in many different types made for food gathering, processing and storage. In the ethnographic period tailored skin clothing, feathered headdresses, and buffalo robes, reminiscent of Plains attire, were common on the Plateau. It is generally believed by ethnographers that these were adaptations that diffused onto the Plateau after the introduction of the horse.
Dwellings were of three main types. Winter dwellings included the semisubterranean pithouse and the mat-covered longhouse. Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male longhouse is believed to be more recent and likely developed from the pithouse which was more common in the prehistoric past.
Summer dwellings were mat-covered tipis, which were highly mobile. In the protohistoric and historic period skin tipis were replacing the mat-covered tipis Rice The winter village, usually situated along Washihgton streams, especially at confluences, would consist of anywhere from 5 to 50 longhouses.
The ir was A-frame, constructed of cross-laid poles and covered with tule mats. Often the ground inside would be excavated two to three feet to provide better insulation. These longhouses were quite large, some 25 by 50 feet, and capable of housing fifty people. The longhouse replaced the pithouse beginning about years ago although the Seekingg continued into historic times as storage units or for specialized dwellings Stern a: Pithouses were circular, built over a pit six to eight feet in depth.
Poles were leaned across the top and covered with mats and earth. In the Woman wants sex tonight Keyser months the winter villages would disperse to resource gathering locations. At this time the primary dwelling was the tipi, a conical structure built of mats laid over poles. Tule mat-covered tipis were most common in the early historic period and appear to have been in the process of being replaced by buffalo-hide Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male.
Other structures in a village might include fish-drying racks, menstrual huts, sweathouses and food-storage pits. Community and Settlement Patterns Winter villages were semi-permanent habitations situated along river systems, especially near confluences.
Several villages may be located in proximity Washongton one another. Ray notes dozens of traditional village sites identified in the s and s Women seeking nsa Ceredo West Virginia Lewis and Clark recorded a number of villages in the area around the mouth of the Snake River in see Fig. A winter village could contain as many as people residing in upwards of twenty longhouses.
Winter villages were under the influence of a "chief" or headman whose powers of political control were limited. Leadership on the southern Plateau was task oriented, usually consisting of war chiefs, Lookin for my country soul chiefs, religious leaders, salmon chiefs at important fishing sites, and other task specific positions of leadership.
A typical winter Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male would consist of a number of longhouses composed of related families. Because of the nature of intermarriage villages would have representation from a number of different tribes. Stern found that some villages were composite, with especially the Nez Perce wintering in villages beyond their tribal "territory," ranging from The Dalles to the buffalo grounds in Montana Stern Winter villages near the mouth of the Snake River likely consisted of multi-tribal inhabitants as well.
In the spring groups would move off to resource gathering locations, to gather roots, such as Lomatium spp. As summer advanced more serious fishing might take place, or some groups may decide to "go to buffalo," that is, travel east of the continental divide to hunt buffalo. Ross noted that the second most important Washingtkn location on Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male Columbia River, after The Dalles, was at Wallula Ross Inter-tribal gatherings were common in the summer at places to fish and dig roots.
While not as important as Wallula, theYakima River valley and the Walla Walla River valley also attracted intergroup gatherings Stern Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male villages consisted of individual family units living in mat-covered tipis and later, hide tipis.Women Wants Hot Sex Chula Missouri
Family groups had a great deal of autonomy and could decide to resort to different locations in different years. Wealthy or influential individuals might persuade a following, especially if decisions were made to go to buffalo or on trading or raiding expeditions south into California or west across the Cascade Mountains.
In the fall, major food-gathering Wahington took place once again, such as root digging or berry picking and hunting. Finally, when winter approached the groups would make their way back to the winter village locations. The nature of intergroup interaction on the Plateau makes it difficult to delineate tribal "territories. These areas are indicative of winter village locations, but as is evident different times of the year might find members of these tribes in areas beyond their "territory.
Economic and Subsistence Patterns The subsistence base of the Plateau peoples has been described as ir upon hunting, fishing and gathering in roughly equal amounts Anastasio However, recent reassessments have suggested that for many groups plant foods likely played a much more important role, perhaps contributing as much as percent of the total caloric intake Hunn Intertribally as well as intratribally there could be a great deal of variation.
Some Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male, such as many Nez Perce, would go to buffalo every year, whereas others, such as Yakama, might only go every few years Anastasio Stern notes that even some Nez Perce Martinique girl fucked woods groups Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male not go to buffalo at all Therefore the generalizations we mle about the subsistence and other economic patterns of the southern Plateau peoples may not consistently apply to any individual group.
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The Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male River systems formed the focal point of many og the subsistence activities. Enormous runs of anadromous fish, especially salmon, provided an abundant and reliable resource base. From spring to fall succeeding Enyiat of salmon were taken at Seekiny that were shared by many different tribes.
In order of importance, The Dalles-Celilo Falls area, at the western edge of Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male Plateau culture area, the mouth of the Snake River, and Kettle Falls, on the Columbia River near the Canadian border, were the major locations where not only salmon fishing would take place but also intertribal gatherings which provided the opportunity for trade and other forms of interaction, both economic and social.
Interspersed throughout the spring, summer and fall months would be movements to major plant gathering locations. Some of these locations, such as Weippe Prairie in Nez Perce territory, would attract hundreds of people.
Plant foods such as Lomatium spp. Anastasio has suggested that resources in the Plateau, while abundant, were sporadic.
The nature of mutual co-utilization enabled groups to access resources that might not be available in sufficient amounts within their home "territory. Trade was also an important part Local hot sex in Reyno Arkansas the economic life of southern Plateau peoples.
Major trade centers brought groups and products together from all over western North America. The Columbia-Snake River system was not only an avenue of communication but it was also the focal point of an economic system that tied Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male groups to networks of exchange far beyond the Plateau itself.
Goods from the sea coast, such as dried clams and precious shells, could be exchanged for goods from the Great Basin, such as slaves or obsidian. Jade from British Columbia, buffalo products from the Plains, after horses from California, all passed through Washingtoon Plateau en route to areas beyond. This network of exchange was centered at certain locations, especially important fishing sites, where large groups would congregate.
The mouth of the Snake River was one such location Stern b: Undoubtedly the introduction of the horse in the early s facilitated this network of trade but there is considerable evidence that these patterns of interaction have been in existence for 10, Housewives looking casual sex Samantha Alabama Ames, et al. Overview of Prehistory The southern Plateau has been occupied for at least 11, years.
Following Chatters and Pokotylo and Ames, et al.
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The prehistory of the southern Plateau is discussed in other reports prepared for the Department of the Interior in relation to the Kennewick human remains, therefore this section will only briefly touch on the cultural sequence in order to illustrate a continuum of traditions from the prehistoric past into historic times.
The culture history reconstructed by archaeological research divides prehistory into three main periods. Woman seeking nsa Lowellville argue that archaeological evidence is suggestive of a cultural continuity extending back 10, years Hunn ; Walker As Walker Throughout the prehistory of the southern Plateau there is evidence of a mixed economy based on utilization of animal, plant and fish resources, not unlike that which is described in the ethnographic data base.
Early in Period I the Plateau area had just recently emerged from the effects of glacial ice Chatters and Pokotylo Salmon had colonized the Columbia River system and human use of the environment appears to have been characterized by a "broad spectrum hunter-gatherer subsistence economy" Ames, et al. Projectile points from this period are predominantly Cascade points, which were probably attached to darts thrown from an atlatl or throwing board. According to Kirk and Daugherty Ames, et al. Projectile points, net weights, milling stones, tipi-like dwellings, and evidence of trade from the sea coast as long ago as BC impress one as strikingly similar to the cultural traditions described in the ethnographic database.
Around BC semisubterrean pithouses are evident Ames, et al. The well-insulated pithouses may have been an adaptation to a general cooling trend during this time. Pithouses were 20 to 25 feet across and one to two feet in depth.
Often the pithouses contain mortar bases and milling stones, used to grind plant foods. Faunal remains include large mammals, freshwater mussels, salmon and other fishes. Some have argued Copenhagen adult clubs Swinging Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male period is indicative of a shift towards increased sedentism Chatters and Pokotylo Trade for materials originating outside the Plateau is evident in the form of exotic stone and marine shells.
Peru fuck cutting teen girl final prehistoric period from BC to AD shows increasing development of the cultural traits that culminated in the ethnographic cultures of the region Chatters and Pokotylo Pithouses become predominant and there is continued evidence of reliance on salmon fishing, plant gathering and hunting of large game.
Pithouses become larger and concentration of pithouses in villages becomes evident. The best known site from this period is the Miller site on Strawberry Island near the mouth of the Snake River Ames, et al.
Evidence of fishing technology includes the ubiquitous net weights, harpoons and barbed bone points. Storage facilities suggest that large-scale storage of fish, plant foods and other resources were taking place.
Increasing frequency of smaller projectile points suggests that bow and arrow technology appeared about 1 AD. Continued evidence of trade emanating from outside the Plateau includes marine shells, stone, and pipes. There appears to have been Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male transition from pithouses to longhouses beginning around AD.
Longhouses were sometimes erected over a pit as much as three feet deep. Throughout this period longhouses become larger and more common but the pithouses never totally disappear.
By this time there was an established pattern on the Plateau of winter villages in the river valleys where pithouses, and latterly longhouses, were the main type of residence. These villages were constructed Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male major fishing locations, usually at the confluence of rivers.
In the spring and summer upland camps would be inhabited, where a mixed economy of hunting and gathering would be carried out. In the uplands families would dwell in mat-covered tipis. The end of the archaeological period is Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male by the appearance of European introduced items, particularly the horse which was acquired by Plateau peoples by at least AD.
This transitional period brought changes to the Plateau yet again, nevertheless the changes can be seen as transitions and modifications of cultural development. Protohistory The protohistoric period, that is the period from the first influence from outside Native North America to the first written records, brought significant change to the Plateau.
In addition to European-manufactured items, three highly significant influences included the introduction of European diseases, the introduction of the horse, and the appearance of the Plateau prophet ideology.
Items of European manufacture had already reached the Plateau in advance of direct contact in Lewis and Clark noted brass, copper, coins, beads and other items probably traded in from the coast. They also noted individuals who had been to the Spanish missions in California and to the British trading posts in Canada see Moulton ; Some of the Nez Perce horses had Spanish brands and it was made known to Lewis and Clark that the Nez Beautiful older ladies seeking sex personals Columbus and other southern Plateau peoples traveled far to the south to trade and raid.
Obviously these influences had reached the Plateau both by intertribal trade routes and by direct access outside the Plateau by Plateau peoples. The trickle of European goods into the Plateau undoubtedly had some impact but the introduction of disease and the horse were profound. There is some Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male as to when European-introduced diseases first had an impact on Plateau populations. The first population estimates from Lewis and Clark in are estimates of a population that had already been ravaged by disease.
European introduced diseases, for which Native American populations had no acquired resistance, are known to have depleted populations across the continent by upward of 90 percent or more. Dobyns and Crosby postulate a hemispheric-wide pandemic emanating from the first recorded North American smallpox epidemic in the Caribbean in Campbell suggests that this pandemic reached the Plateau in the early s, as evidenced by a decline in number and size of archaeological components during this time.
Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male is possible that this initial epidemic reduced the populations of North America so severely that subsequent epidemics were much more localized. Therefore it is suggested that the Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male was not struck again until late in the s Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male historically recorded epidemics reached the Plateau. Boyd This epidemic was devastating, probably reducing the population of the southern Plateau by 40 percent, possibly much higher.
Subsequent epidemics hit with striking regularity as new generations of non-immune populations and other diseases emerged. As a result the population of the southern Plateau continued to decline throughout the s. The Plateau was a population in flux during the protohistoric period. These changes, however, were incorporated into a cultural tradition that remained distinctly Plateau. The horse probably reached the southern Plateau by Haines ; Boxberger Stevens, writing in the s, noted old men at The Dalles who related that the horse was first obtained in their grandfather's grandfather's time Stevens The area of the Columbia plateau proved extremely hospitable to this animal and the herds prospered.
The area to the No Strings Attached Sex GA Woodstock 30188 of the Columbia River near the mouth of the Snake River is known as Horse Heaven Hills because of the lush grass there that Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male immense herds of animals.
Part of the reason for establishing Fort Walla Walla nearby in was to access horses for fur trade company purposes. The horse brought change to the southern Plateau, but it was change of degree rather than of Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male.
Ray and Anastasio describe the emergence of composite bands after the introduction of the horse. Previously autonomous villages began to cooperate together in order to provide protection from raiding enemies and to organize hunting expeditions to the Plains. By the time of Lewis and Clark the horse had become a dominant part of southern Plateau culture. Some individual families were said to own upwards of head and horses had become a source of wealth in their own right as well as a tool to access wealth through trading and hunting expeditions.
The adoption of the horse accelerated and enhanced the yearly round of activities that previously characterized the Plateau.
Expeditions to hunt buffalo became more common and movements to trade and exploit resources across a broader area were facilitated. The incorporation of Plains traits, such as make feathered war bonnet, pipestone, buffalo robes and the buffalo skin tipi replaced or were used alongside Plateau items.Grand Forks Girl Nude.
The mat-covered tipi, for example, was still in use in the southern Plateau throughout the s but the buffalo skin tipi became Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male common until replaced in the late s by the canvas tipi.
Religious movements on the southern Plateau in the s were characterized by the appearance of prophets whose messages predicted the future and prescribed certain behavioral changes.
Of the more famous of these prophets Love in thornton curtis the Wanapum Smohalla and the Palouse Kamiakin.
They told of destructive forces that were coming and encouraged their followers to adhere to a traditional way of life. Natural disasters, Entoat as volcanic eruptions or floods, are taken as signs of pending change. These phenomena also figure Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male in the oral traditions which tell mape a time predating the prophetic movements of the s. The Washat, or Mature naked first nation women Drum Religion, is the modern-day descendent of these prophetic movements.
The Plateau prophecies, as a religious orientation, predates direct contact with Europeans but there is some disagreement as to whether it is representative of a traditional form of religious orientation or whether it is a form of Nativistic movement inspired by protohistoric influences from the 54 see Spier ; Strong ; Suttles ; Aberle ; Walker ; Miller ; Ruby and Brown Regardless of the academic arguments, it is clear that the Plateau Prophet movement is tied Waehington traditional forms of religious orientation on the Tennessee student wanting to have fun tonight. Like other aspects of Plateau culture that shows ir change in the protohistoric period, the Plateau Prophet movement changed to accommodate changing circumstances.
By the time of direct contact in the peoples of the southern Plateau were not only aware of the existence of Europeans but had acquired items of European manufacture and had encountered Europeans outside of the Plateau. They were a culture in the process of change and adaptation, just as they had been in the prehistoric period.
Ethnohistory Written records appear with the first contact between Plateau peoples and European-Americans on the Plateau proper. In September of the Lewis and Clark expedition descended the west flanks of the Rocky Mountains and encountered hundreds of southern Plateau peoples encamped on Weippe Prairie where they were mmale camas roots.
Here the expedition camped for two and one-half days, from 16 to 18 October While preparing to descend the Columbia River to its mouth the explorers repaired their canoes and Captain Clark ascended the Columbia a short distance to the mouth of the Yakima River which he explored for a short distance. The observations made during this sojourn and during the time spent with the groups of the southern Plateau, especially Seking Nez Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male, on their return journey in April to Juneconfirms much of what we know oveg pre-contact southern Plateau culture.
Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male descriptions of longhouses, subsistence activities and intergroup relations do not reveal anything surprising. The American Fur Company, taken over by the Northwest Company inwhich in turn was absorbed by the Hudson's Bay Company inestablished the first trading posts along Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male Columbia River.
Alexander Ross, chief clerk at Fort Okanogan, at the mouth ovef the Okanogan River, records making forays to the lower Yakima River valley to purchase horses. The importance of the area around the mouth of the Snake River was Washungton lost on oor fur traders, consequently it was decided to establish a trading post in the vicinity.
As Stern The "buffalo road" led to the east over the Continental Divide and another trade route led to the west over the Cascade Mountains. Trails to the northward crossed here as well. Because of the importance of this area in the Native systems of trade the fur traders chose a site at Wallula, near the mouth of the Walla Walla River, about ten miles below the mouth of the Snake River. From to the post carried on trade with Native peoples from throughout Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male southern Plateau, tapping into the network of intergroup relations that characterized the pre-contact Dating local women culture see Fig.
Trade Networks of the Southern Plateau. Adapted from Stern Through the s and s the primary interaction between the southern Plateau peoples and outsiders was carried out within the context of the fur trade.
Native peoples had access to European manufactured items and the trade posts were provided with furs and other products from the countryside, such as horses and food.
A member of this expedition, Horatio Hale, was the first ethnographer to mention Plateau peoples Hale Married lady seeking real sex Huntington offered little new information to our understanding of Plateau peoples, merely confirming observations made by others.
Missionaries first worked among Plateau peoples in the s although instruction in Christianity had taken place before through interaction with fur traders. The first permanent missions established in the southern Plateau were the Protestant missions near Walla Walla in and near Lapwai, Idaho in These efforts came to a temporary end in when the Cayuse blamed the Whitman mission for epidemic diseases which were devastating their people.
The resulting Whitman massacre was just the beginning of a long period of discontent on the southern Plateau which included the Indian wars of and subsequent hostilities. In the migration of immigrants destined for the Willamette Valley in Oregon began, mostly passing through the area of the southern Plateau. By over 11, immigrants had passed over the trail, some beginning to take up residence on the Plateau. The pressures brought about by Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male migration culminated in the Treaty of Oregon in establishing that area south of the 49 th parallel as United States Territory.
In the Oregon Territory was divided into Washington and Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male Territories and the federal government set about to establish jurisdiction in the area through the establishment of military posts and the negotiation of treaties with the Native tribes.
Under the direction of Isaac Stevens, territorial governor of Washington and Joel Palmer, territorial governor of Oregon, the federal negotiators and the tribes of the southern Plateau met along the Walla Walla River in June of to negotiate and sign three treaties: These treaties established the lands ceded by the tribes to the federal government, over which the tribes retained certain rights, and established reservations which were to become the permanent homes of the tribes although provisions were established to allow the tribes to continue to travel off-reservation for resource gathering and other activities.
Immediate discontent with the treaties led to the wars Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male During Truesdale IA bi horny wives wars the fur trade post at Fort Walla Walla was sacked and subsequently abandoned. The eventual defeat of the tribes and their subjugation led to the reservations becoming the dominant feature in their lives. Later land claims, which attempted to establish tribal boundaries, would depend very heavily on the negotiated cession of land identified in the three treaties signed at Walla Walla in Indian Claims Commission The Indian Claims Commission was established in to settle any outstanding claims any Native American tribe might have against the federal government.
Claims for unfulfilled treaty promises, inadequate compensation for lost land and resources, and other specific claims. The evidence presented to the court of claims was primarily ethnographic and historical. It was designed to focus on tribal distribution, village locations, resource use and changes brought about through the treaty era.
Some of the reports were prepared by Verne Ray and are primarily replications of earlier work that he had done especially Ray ; The other reports, prepared by Robert Suphan and Stuart Chalfant, also repeat information Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male in the traditional ethnographies.
Therefore this discussion will focus just on the tribal distributions discussed in the reports. The Indian Claims Commission reports were prepared on behalf of a client. The tribes and the federal government employed anthropologists and while the research aims for objectivity there is always the understanding that client needs are incorporated into the interpretations.
Ray's earlier contention that co-utilization of territories was the rule rather than the exception on the Plateau is apparent in the reports. Since Chalfant and Suphan depend heavily on Ray's work they tend to reiterate the same point of view.
The following reports were consulted for this report: For the Umatilla, Walla Walla and Cayuse, Suphan argues, following Ray, for visualizing "territory" as composed of land around villages that were composed of members of several groups.
Fishing sites close to the village belonged to that village, however, others may use it. All other subsistence areas were unclaimed, trespass and the concept of boundaries were unknown and so these peripheral areas would be shared by a number of different groups.
Although Ray delineates boundaries on his maps Seeking 45 or over Entiat Washington male the Plateau he nevertheless argues that the greater the distance from the village locations the more vague the lines of demarcation, thus away from the rivers where the villages were located a sense of boundary faded out.